The long-term predictability of dental implants is directly associated with the quality and quantity of the available bone for implant placement. When the alveolar ridges lack appropriate volume, reconstructive surgery is needed. Several surgical techniques and bone grafting materials are available for that purpose. The surgeon needs a critical evaluation of these techniques and biomaterials to be able to select the most appropriate procedure and graft type. There is an increase in the demand for reconstructive surgery and thus bone substitutes, principally due to changes in the lifestyles with expectation of a good life quality, and the wide acceptance of minimally invasive surgery. Considerable controversy still exists regarding the choice of the most reliable technique and materials. Data from scientific literature should be analyzed with care, as many papers do not have enough long-term basis and have methodological biases. Decision making in evidence-based implant dentistry involves diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainties, clinicians’ heuristics and biases, patients’ preferences and values, as well as cost considerations. In this lecture, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and clinical trials are the main source of data obtained to compare different therapeutic alternatives and materials. This evidence-based approach, combined with the clinical experience, assures clinicians that their therapeutic decisions are supported by solid research. The aim of this presentation is to evaluate different grafting materials in order to help clinicians to make decisions based on the available scientific evidence literature and patient´s clinical characteristics, maximizing their success and minimizing morbidity. The Presenter will show the outcomes of his latest original research and clinical results. He will focus on the different grafting materials available for bone augmentation, including alveolar ridge augmentation, guided bone regeneration, sinus floor augmentation and extraction socket preservation. The benefits and effects of using autologous growth factors will be analyzed showing clinical results, including a novel protocol using Plasma Rich in Growth Factors for treating osteonecrosis due to bisphosphonates.